Place of origin soybeans - Manchuria, the northeast region of China. From this culture spread throughout Southeast Asia and then around the world. The history of emergence and spread of soy has at least five thousand years. European scientists soybeans became known after the German naturalist E. damper in 1691 visited the East and described it in his book «Amoentitatum Exoticarum Politico-Physico-Medicarum» (issued 1712). The famous German botanist Karl Monh in 1794 and re-opened soybeans described it called Soja hispida Moench. In the former Soviet Union, the first one mentioned the soybean crop was V. Poyarkov that during an expedition to the Sea of Okhotsk met crops on the middle reaches of the Amur River in the local population. The first experimental crops in Russia held in Kherson and Tauride provinces in 1877, but the first domestic soybean variety yellow Amur population launched in 1923 and cultivated until 1934.
Significant spread of soybean in the world due primarily to a unique combination of culture seeds are high in protein (38-45%), which in its amino acid composition is equivalent to the "ideal" fat (18-25%), carbohydrates (25- 30%). The ash soybean seeds high in potassium, phosphorus, vitamins (A, B1, B2, E, C, D1, D3, RR.), Enzymes and minerals. Soya plays a crucial role in enhancing the culture of agriculture, nitrogen balance of the soil, crop structure and balance of food resources. It is deservedly popular with farmers and agriculture professionals around the culture as the most profitable, the cheapest producer of protein is important in strengthening the economy and improving living standards. In soybeans great future, it can significantly improve the food security of the population of Ukraine, where growth for its production are favorable. Soya - a unique feed, food, pharmaceutical, engineering and culture, so that was one of the main strategic crop farming. Where in the world in 1960, producing 31 million tons of soybeans in 2002 - 184.9, in 2009 - 210.9 million tons. In 2013, soybean grown 286.8 million tons. The main countries - producers of soy are the United States - 89 5 million tons, Brazil - 89 Argentina - 54.5 China - 12.2, India - 11.8, Paraguay - 9.0 Canada - 5.3, Ukraine - 2.76 million tons.
The increase in soybean production due to population growth on the planet, where the 1960 population 2.98 billion people in 2002 - 6.2 billion. In 2010 is 6.83 billion. People. Increasing population - and increased food consumption. Soybeans, especially valuable food. In countries with low-income population (South America, Africa, Asia) soybeans are used as a cheap vegetable protein in the diet of people, and in countries with higher incomes (USA, Canada, EU) as a valuable raw material in animal feed to produce animal protein . Almost soy culture has provided dynamic development of agriculture in those countries where it is cultivated on millions and tens of millions of hectares. According to academician A. Babich, in the US by introducing soybean crop rotation and changes in the structure of crops in general, received 40% increase in productivity of corn, barley and wheat.
Different crops produced in varying degrees more or less the fate of sugars, fats, proteins and carbohydrates. But stosuyetsyabilkiv - the basis of all life on Earth, it is the most soy is the very culture that has a high grain protein content. This is especially true high protein soybean varieties Research Institute.
Soya is quite demanding on the soil, its fertility, moisture, soil reaction solution. It can be cultivated in a wide range of well-drained land and collect high yields on different soils. To obtain high yields of soybeans are most suitable cultivated, rich in humus and lime, fertilized, loose soil that easily warmed, with good water - and air permeability. Sand and gravel soils are less suitable for growing soybeans because they tend to dry out during the growing season. Soya carries a high level of groundwater and soil solution pH from 5.5 to 8.5, but the best for her pH 6.5 - 7.0. In soils with a pH of 3 - 4 deaths soybeans after germination occurs in 40 - 50 days at pH - 5, it first develops and then suppressed and hardly constitutes a healthy seeds. However, marshy, saline soils and acid reclamation without her unsuitable.
Temperature is a major climatic factor, which determines the place of growing soybeans. The need to warm it rises during seed germination to the stairs, and then - before flowering, the ovary and the formation of seeds, and during the ripening decreases. Evaluation of different varieties is based on the amount of heat that is necessary to reach full maturity. To form the reproductive organs soybean favorable temperature 18 - 19 degrees, the optimum - 21 - 23 minimum for flowering - 16 - 18 degrees, favorable - 19 - 21, optimum 22 - 25 degrees, the maximum - about 28; for the formation of beans and seeds - respectively 13-14, 17-18 and 20-23 degrees, and for ripening - 7-8, 13-16, 18-20. With the temperature 15 - 19 degrees seeds ripen within 10 - 15 days, and at a higher - 6 - 8 days. When the temperature drops to 10 - 13 degrees leaves gradually turn yellow and delayed ripening for 18 - 20 days and more - at 8 - 9 degrees.
Soybean crop belongs to a short day and is very sensitive to changes in the duration of illumination. Growing it in northern regions leads to prolongation of the phase of plant development and reduced productivity. In the south, where long daylight hours, soybeans growing faster reduction causing the growing season. Mostly light decreases by zabur'yanenyh crops, leading to a sharp decrease in yield. The most adversely affected by weeds in soybean plants in the first 40 - 50 days of growth when the stem nodes laid generative organs.
Soybean belongs to the middle drought tolerant plants. Less moisture soybeans used in the period from germination to early flowering, seed germination absorbs 130 - 160% more moisture on its mass. After the stairs in soybeans rapidly developing root system and aboveground mass very slowly because of evaporation of water at this time is insignificant. Most plants need moisture during the flowering and growth of beans. Lack of water leads to abscission of buds, flowers, fruits, seeds and reducing the weight of the crop. Optimal conditions for growth and development of soybean plants consist at a relative humidity of 65 - 70%. Biological nitrogen fixation is only this culture under aerobic conditions, hence her demands to the presence of atmospheric and soil and air. The critical threshold lower air content is - 9% of the volume of soil, optimum air supply system is achieved at the root content 16 - 20%.
Soy is very responsive to the conditions of mineral nutrition. The formation of one quintal of seeds soya require: nitrogen - 9.2 kg of phosphorus - 3.1, -3.6, potassium, calcium - 2.5 Magnesium - 1.1 kg. By the nature of assimilation of individual batteries in soybeans are three periods: the first (I-IV stages of organogenesis) when the plant for better root development, nodules and land masses must have phosphorus, calcium, cobalt and molybdenum, and the important prevalence of phosphorus on nitrogen ; second (V-VIII stages of organogenesis) when needed most in nitrogen, potassium and boron; third (IX-XII stages of organogenesis) - maximum need nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium.
The value of a variety of biological bases of high-quality technology and high productivity is very high. Modern varieties must have the following properties: - High potential yield, seed quality, suitability for mechanical harvesting without significant loss; - Adapted to the terrain, able to respond to the growing technology varietal techniques, including density of plants, fertilizers, irrigation, Inoculums, plant growth stimulants; - Vysokoroslist (> 85 cm), increased number of internodes on the main stem, multiflorous tassel, even placing the beans on plant resistance to lodging and cracking the beans; - The accelerated growth of the root system, forming nodules and ground mass; - Active formation of the leaf surface, high intensity of photosynthesis and biological nitrogen fixation atmosphere; - A long flowering period (35-45 days), resistance to abortyvnosti flowers and beans during the summer drought, the ability to form the next crop loss due to rain formation and beans nalivaniju lower, middle, upper tiers, ie those tiers plants, which consist favorable water supply, heat and nutrient regimes and terminal additions; - Simultaneous discharge leaves and seeds ripen at all tiers beans; - Resistance to seed shattering by changing the dry, hot and rainy weather and met with; - Resistance to stressful situations, such as rain, hail, wind, low and high temperatures and against diseases; - High protein content in the seed varieties for food and feed use trends for oil - fat.
On this culture can speak as one of the best precursors for most cultivated crops in Ukraine. Practice has shown that if we sow soya monoculture for more than three years, the plants affected diseases and pests even so intense that the cost of remedies and work on inclusion exceeds the value of soybean grain. In short the economy is not working. Therefore, the structure of the soybean acreage should take no more than 43%. In terms of Poltava region we recommend chotyrohpilnu rotation: soybean - winter wheat - soybean - corn. With this rotation fertilization minimum, while the sowing of soybean seed inoculation mandatory drug Lehumfiks, allowing the atmosphere annually accumulate on one hectare of planting 130 - 170 kg of nitrogen. This nitrogen is used the next wonderful culture that allows for winter wheat and corn spend only one nutrient. In today's agricultural holdings scrupulously respected technology but small, especially farmers, are not always concerned about compliance system of crop rotation and soil fertility preservation. For the most part, unfortunately, want to earn more and put money in your pocket. Therefore, to preserve the fertility of the soil, that is stable for the annual productivity of cultivated areas must adhere well tested rotation.
During the last three years of Soybean Research Institute of soya preparatory work carried out in 2015, our company "Granit - Agro" received international certificate for organic production. On the area of 2200 hectares was grown organic soybeans, organic corn, organic hemp. On the development of organic farming in the Institute conducted research work, working hours, to a significant expansion of the area of organic production. In the coming years, to ten - twelve thousand hectares. Conveyor technology worked well drilling and machining rows, harrows and application specific units for processing of soil with organic production. The second, equally interesting line of work is the growing and processing of technical hemp (grain, seeds and fiber Kostra et al.). In 2015, the Institute created a laboratory breeding technical hemp, which already has a financial base that allows you to work on new varieties of cannabis with specified quality parameters. The system of selection and primary seed breeders and conducted by experienced professionals varietal tested elements of technology. A great work on assembly machines and mechanisms entire process (part - planting - growing - multidirectional assembly - revision seeds - primary processing of hemp straw - logistics). If in 2015 we planted 50 hectares technical hemp then in 2016 will be held in the area of cultivation 815 hectares of which 400 hectares will be cultivated by organic farming system. Yet the selection, breeding and seed soya our priority. This work is about five years is pretty intense and we expect in 2016 inclusion in the State Register of Plant Varieties three varieties of soybean research institute with high performance, quality and economic indicators.